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The 17 Laws Of The Game For Association Football
The Laws of the Game are the rules by which every game of Association Football is played and are written and maintained by the IFAB, the International Football Association Board.
1. Law 1: The Field Of Play
Law 1 dictates the standard pitch measurements for an association football pitch as well as the rules governing the field of play including pitch markings, regulations for height, width and material of goalposts, dimensions of penalty areas and goal areas and official regulations for other areas of the field such as each team's technical area on the sidelines.
2. Law 2: The Ball
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Law 2 of the IFAB's Laws ofthe Game states that the ball used in Association Football is an air-filled sphere with a circumference of 68–70 cm (or 27–28 inches), a weight 410–450 g (or 14–16 ounces), inflated to a pressure of 8–12 psi, and covered in leather or "other suitable material". The usual size of footballs in adult games is Size 5 although some junior leagues use Size 4 balls for smaller children.
3. Law 3: Number of PlayersEach team can consist of a maximum of eleven players, one of whom must be a designated goalkeeper who is the only player allowed to handle the football and only then within the confines of the penalty area. Teams are allowed to substitute players on a one-for-one basis throughout the game and the number of substitutes allowed is decided by the rules of the competition being played and not the central Laws of the Game.
4. Law 4: The Players' EquipmentPlayers are required to wear shirts, shorts, socks, shin guards and football boots with the necessary type of studs. Goalkeepers must wear clothing which easily distinguishes them from the other players and from the match officials. Players are not allowed to wear anything which may be dangerous to themselves or other players which can include jewellery or watches.
5. Law 5: The Referee
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The referee has, according to Law 5, "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" and his decision on all matters is final. The referee is assisted in his duties by two assistant referees (formerly known as linesmen) and, in high profile professional games, by a fourth official on the sideline.
6. Law 6: The Assistant RefereesTwo assistant referees help the referee control an association football match with one covering each half of the pitch by running along the opposite touchline from each other in opposing halves. They help the referee by bringing his attention to matters he may have failed to see such as off the ball infringements or offside decisions and attracts the referee's attention by waving a flag. The assistant referee's role is purely advisory however as the referee always retains final control over decisions relating to the game.
7. Law 7: The Duration of the MatchAdult football matches consist of two halves of 45 minute seach making the total game time of ninety minutes. A fifteen minute half-time break is taken after the first half of 45 minutes and, as the clock is not stopped for infringements or the ball going out of play, the referee can use his discretion to add on "stoppage time" at the end of each half to take the time wasted during the half into consideration.
8. Law 8: The Start and Restart of PlayWhen the ball is "out of play" or at the start of each half, the game can be restarted by one of the eight following means:1) Kick-off2) Throw-in3) Goal kick4) Corner kick5) Indirect free kick6) Direct free kick7) Penalty kick8) Dropped-ball
9. Law 9: The Ball In and Out of PlayThe ball is defined as "In Play" when from the beginning of each half to the end of that half unless it has left the field of play by completely crossing either goal line or a touchline or the referee has stopped play for whatever reason, for example a foul or an injury. When the ball is "Out Of Play" it is considered dead until the referee allows the game to restart by the appropriate restart method, for example a goal kick, throw in, drop ball or corner kick.
10. Law 10: The Method of ScoringA goal is scored if the ball COMPLETELY crosses the goal line between the goal posts without a foul or infringement haven't been made by the attacking team's players since the time the ball last went out of play.